Table of ContentsIntroduction One Dimensional Motion Two Dimensional Motion Force Work and Energy Momentum and Collisions Circular Motion and the Law of Gravity Vibrations and Waves Electric Fields and Potentials Current and Resistance Magnetism Wave Properties of Light Quantum Physics Atomic Physics Nuclear Physics IntroductionIn this chapter we discuss the concept of dimension and the choices of units commonly used in physics. We discuss dimensional analysis and order of magnitude calculations, and define some mathematical notation Motion in One DimensionIn this chapter we discuss motion in one dimension. We introduce definitions for displacement, velocity and acceleration, and derive equations of motion for bodies moving in one dimension with constant acceleration. We apply these equations to the situation of a body moving under the influence of gravity alone. Displacement Average Velocity Instantaneous Velocity Acceleration One Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration Derivation of Kinematic Equations of Motion Freely Falling Bodies Motion in Two DimensionsIn two dimensions, it is necessary to use vector notation to describe physical quantities with both magnitude and direction. In this chapter, we define displacement, velocity and acceleration as vectors in two dimensions. We also discuss the solution of projectile motion problems in two dimensions. Scalars and Vectors Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration in 2-Dimensions Displacement Average Velocity Instantaneous Velocity Average Acceleration Instantaneous Acceleration Projectile Motion ForceIn this section we introduce the concept of force. We discuss Newton's laws, which describe the way a body responds to a net force. We discuss frictional forces and the way they can be mathematically represented. We study several applications of Newton's laws. Newton's First Law Newton's Second Law Newton's Third Law Applications of Newton's Laws Friction Experimental facts about friction Problem Solving Strategy Work and EnergyIn this chapter we introduce the concepts of work, energy and power. We define kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and the potential energy stored in a compressed or stretched spring. Work Kinetic Energy and the Work Energy Theorem Gravitational Potential Energy Potential Energy Stored in a Spring Choosing a Coordinate System Conservation Laws Power Momentum and CollisionsIn this section we define momentum and impluse. We discuss the conservation of momentum in collisions and the conservation of kinetic energy in the context of three different types of collisions. Momentum and Impulse Conservation of Momentum Collisions and Kinetic Energy Types of collisions Head on Collisions and Glancing Collisions Circular Motion and the Law of GravityIn this Chapter, the quantities needed to describe circular motion will be defined. These include angular velocity, angular acceleration, tangential velocity and acceleration and, centripetal acceleration. We will also learn about Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation and apply it to a couple of examples involving circular orbits. Introduction Centripetal Acceleration Newton's Law of Gravitation Vibrations and WavesIf any object is displaced slightly from equilibrium it will oscillate about its equilibrium position in what is called simple harmonic motion. The most common examples are a mass on a spring, and a simple pendulum. In this Chapter we examine in detail the motion of simple harmonic oscillators. Simple Harmonic Motion Elastic Potential Energy Comparison with Circular Motion The Simple Pendulum Electric Fields and PotentialsThe most common experience with electric charge in everyday life is that of ``static cling' - when two particular types of materials are rubbed together, it is found that they stick together, at least for a while. In this chapter we will be examining properties of electric charges at rest. The major concepts which will be introduced are the electric field and the electric potential V . Electric Charge Electric Forces and Fields Electric work and potential difference Current and ResistanceIn this Chapter we will study charges in motion due to electric fields. This will lead us to a discussion of Kirchhoff's laws, which are general tools for the analysis of electrical circuits. Current Resistance Energy and Power Circuits Resistors in Series Resistors in Parallel MagnetismThe movement of a compass needle towards the North Pole and the attraction of a fridge magnet to the refrigerator are two examples of magnetism in our everyday lives. In this chapter we will examine a magnetic field in detail and begin to explore the sources of magnetism. We will also begin to see a connection between magnetism and electricity which, when developed further, is at the heart of one of the most successful theories in physics. The Magnetic Field Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Wire Torque on a Current Carrying Loop Sources of the Magnetic Field A long straight wire A circular loop Solenoid Force between two parallel wires Wave Properties of LightThere are many properties of light that can only be understood in terms of a wave-like description. In this Chapter we will examine these in some detail; many of the more mathematical aspects will be omitted. General Properties of Light General Properties of Waves Reflection Refraction Diffraction Interference Young's Double Slit Experiment Quantum PhysicsWe have seen in the previous chapter that the properties of refraction, diffraction, and interference all require a wave picture of light. In this chapter we will begin to study other aspects associated with light which cannot be explained with a wave picture, but in fact need a particle picture. The coexistence of phenomena which require both a wave and a particle picture is called a wave-particle duality, and is at the heart of the modern theory of quantum physics. The Photoelectric Effect Wave-Particle Duality de Broglie Waves The Uncertainty Principle Atomic PhysicsIn this chapter we will explore the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom and its extensions. This model was one of the greatest successes of early quantum theory, and spurred many further investigations which continue to this day. Atomic Spectra The Bohr Model Nuclear PhysicsIn this chapter we will examine some properties of the nucleus. This will include a discussion of radioactivity of heavier elements and also the nuclear reactions of fusion and fission. Nuclei Radioactivity Nuclear Reactions |